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亚博网页版|苍茫大海上的风车 海上风电的德国教训

发布日期:2021-06-17 00:07浏览次数:
本文摘要:For years,Germanys ambitious effort to generate bountiful electricity with wind farms rising from the deep blue sea has been drowning in red ink多年来,德国雄心勃勃的海上风力开发计划虽然遇到了困难,但仍然存在赤字。目前,像黑石集团(Blackstone)这样的投资者、西门子(Siemens AG)等供应商期待挽回这一势头。

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For years,Germanys ambitious effort to generate bountiful electricity with wind farms rising from the deep blue sea has been drowning in red ink多年来,德国雄心勃勃的海上风力开发计划虽然遇到了困难,但仍然存在赤字。目前,像黑石集团(Blackstone)这样的投资者、西门子(Siemens AG)等供应商期待挽回这一势头。offshore wind holds enormous potential for plentiful,Environmental ly friendly energy because the open sea is almost always windy . but ever sii对外开放水域建设所需的船只也不得而知。As a result,early offshore-wind projects blew through budgets and schedules because developers had to invest billions of dollars in ports因此,早期海上风电项目支出相当严重,开发商需要在港口、专用船只和电力连接设备上投入数十亿美元,因此生产也被推迟。

Siemens,the worlds largest manufacturer of offshore wind turbines,And its partners concede they under estimated the challenges behind of全球最大的海上风力涡轮制造商西门子及其合作伙伴否认高估了海上风力项目背后的挑战。上周证明了这些挑战对财政的影响。西门子回应称,新计算了与1.28亿欧元(1.71亿美元)相关的海上风电场和电网相关费用。

西门子称之为运输、安装和涡轮部件启动成本。They say,however,that they managed to learn new skills in the process。但是该公司回应说,在此过程中教授了新技术。

private-equity firm black stone and german project developer wind MW have invested 1.2 billion euros in the meer wind-german for sea wind mood投资基金股份公司黑石集团和德国项目开发企业WindMW位于距北海的德国海岸50英里以上的地方,该项目名叫Meerwind,共有80个大型西门子涡轮,预计今年年底开始发电,比原定日期推迟一年左右。Building meer wind proved daunting,despite its relatively shallow waters . engineers had to anchor foundations for turbines,Transformers虽然在浅水中,但meed工程师必须使涡轮、变压器和回流站的底座在水面下130英尺以上相同。事实证明,这个过程的再生可能性比预想的要小得多。

another problem was wiring the system to move gigawatts from the sea to consumers on land .this requires offshore converter stations the size of ff Ies,which Siemens builds at a price of around 1 billion euros each。另一个问题是在这个系统上安装电线,以便将放置在海里的电力运送给陆地上的消费者。这必须建造一个和工厂一样大的海上回流站。

各回流所从西门子公司赚取约10亿欧元。Siemens says delays in manufacturing and preparing the converters have cost it roughly 900 million euros in the past two years,Including the latest西门子表示,过去两年由于生产及回流所延期,公司损失近,西门子7月又设立了最后两个回流所。

Tim dawidowsky,chief executive of siemenss electricity-transmission unit,Said Siemens has nearly doubled the amount of time allote西门子有线子公司首席执行官Tim Dawidowsky表示,西门子为Despite its challenges,Wind Power Remains A crucial Element in Germanys Strategy to replace Nuclear and FOSSGermany Closed Eight of its Oldest Nucles Lants Immediately Following the disaster and plans to close the other Nine by 2022 2011年3月海啸再次发生日本福岛核电站事故,德国减缓了核电站解散的速度福岛核电站事故再次发生后,德国计划立即恢复8座最古老的核电站,到2022年恢复其余9座核电站。Other wind farms,including the Nordsee Ost project developed by german utility RWE AG,are under construction。其他风电场正在建设中,还包括德国公共公司RWW:Last Year,Renewable Energies Accounted for 24% of Germanys Power Generation . and with A Share of more than one third of thard去年可再生能源发电量占德国发电量的24%。

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据能源业游说团体BDEW称,风能占德国可再生能源发电量的三分之一,仅次于德国的“绿色”电力。offshore wind only accounts for a fraction-less than 1%-of the germanys renewable-energy generation,But the densely populated coors海上风力发电仅占德国可再生能源发展的一小部分,即近1%,但在这个人口密集的国家,最有希望的陆上风力发电项目已经被分割,投资者不得不将目光投向海上风力发电。To date,Germany has an offshore Capacity of around 630 megawatts of offshore wind power and plans to boost that tenfold by 2020 to 6.5 Gigawatts . bb到目前为止,德国的海上风电发电量约为630兆瓦,德国计划到2020年使海上风电发电量翻10倍,超过6.5千兆瓦。

到2030年已经超过15千兆瓦。technological challenges behind offshore wind may be shrinking,But the economics remain daunting . one kilowatt-hour of electricity generationcoal and gas plants generate electricity for as little as 4 cents per kwh。大海 海上风力发电费用最低平均为0.18欧元/度,太阳能发电和陆上风力发电费用为0.11欧元和0.08欧元,煤炭和天然气发电费用约为0.04欧元。

long-term subsidy programs need to be in place to cover this gap,said Magnus Dale,senior analyst at consultancy IHS Energy in Paris.Germany is offering long-term support to the sector,guaranteeing subsidies for offshore wind farms for up to 12 years,Despite having slashed德国对海上风电场长达12年的反对虽然补贴抑制了该国到2030年为止已将装机容量目标提高40%,大幅下降的费用。the country still expects total renewables subsidies to rise to around 24 billion euros this year,A bill that electricity consumers are paying the bill that electricity consumers德国预计今年可再生能源补贴总额将提高到约240亿欧元,这笔钱由电力消费者追加缴纳电费The industry believes that further industrial ization and technological progress will help reduce The cost业界指出工业化的更多发展和技术:Michael Hannibal,head of siemenss wind-power division,Said the offshore industry aims to cut costs by around 40% by 2020 . thise expensive than coal and gas-but more reductions are expected to follow . to achieve this,Siemens is looking to develop bigger and more effiis西门子风电部门负责人汉尼拔(Michael Hannibal)的目标是到2020年将成本减少约40%,这一成本水平仍然比目前的陆地风电成本低35%左右,比煤炭和天然气发电成本高1.7倍,但预计今后会上升。

为了构建这些目标,西门子正在考虑开发更大、更高效的风力涡轮。siemenss biggest wind generator has a capacity of 6 mega watt s but the company needs to begin looking at 8 MWS,said Mr . Hannibal . rivals Areva sa Anna汉尼拔说西门子的装机容量仅次于风力发电机,为6兆瓦,但公司需要开始考虑8兆瓦的装置。西门子的竞争对手Areva SA和Vestas A/S已经拥有8兆瓦的产品。Over the long-term,the goal is to bring down cost,so that offshore wind can compete with coal and gas,Mr. Hannibal said。

汉尼拔。


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